Iktinos was a Greek architect active in Athens at this time, who has been named as one of the possible architects of the Parthenon. Exactly when the temple was converted to a Christian church remains unknown. Even the Parthenon, arguably the most important structure in Athens, was not as well preserved as the Temple of Hephaestus. The temple was officially inaugurated in 416–415 BC. = water deity, Museum of the Ancient Agora, no of finding S 182).During the Hellenistic period, bushes or small trees in parallel order were planted into flowerpots around the temple; these pots came to light during excavation. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. In the 3rd century BCE trees and shrubs (pomegranates, myrtle and laurel) were planted around the temple, creating a small garden. The dimensions of the temple are 13.71 m north to south and 31.78 m east to west, with six columns on the short east and west sides and thirteen columns along the longer north and south sides (with each of the four corner … This would make it particularly relevant to all craftspeople in Athens. According to Wikipedia and other sources, construction began in … In this case, archeologists believe that the sculptures depict the hero Theseus and the people known as the Lapiths battling against the centaurs. According to the traveler and geographer Pausanias two deities were jointly worshiped in the temple: Hephaestos, protector of all metallurgists, and Athena Ergani, protecting all potters and the cottage industries. He is also lame and accounts as to how he became lame vary. Archeologists also suspect that this was a temple to Athena Ergani, the patron saint of Athens in the specific role as protector of potters and cottage industries. It was dedicated to Hephaestus, the ancient god of fire and Athena, goddess of pottery and crafts. just create an account. There are many temples in Greece, so what makes the Temple of Hephaestus so special? The east side numbered ten metopes that were visible from the Agora: they depicted nine of the feats of Hercules. Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado. Create an account to start this course today. Why not share it with other people interested in history? The sanctuary would have been closed during the persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire. The Temple of Hephaestus is a well-preserved Greek temple located at the north-west side of the Agora of Athens; it remains standing largely as built. Hephaestus, known as Vulcan in the Roman pantheon, was the god of fire, the forge and metal workers. The building has a pronaos, a cella housing cult images at the centre of the structure, and an opisthodomos. There was also an inner Doric colonnade (κιονοστοιχία) with five columns on the north and south side and three across the end (with the corner columns counting twice). The ten metopes on the east side depict the Labours of Heracles. Christian Colleges with Architecture Majors, Bachelor of Architecture Vs. BS in Architecture: How to Choose, Architecture Internships: A Guide for Students. Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, On top of Agoraios Kolonos hill, which is delimiting the Ancient Agora of Athens, and to the west, stands the temple of the Olympian God. Reconstructing the themes of the pediments is difficult due to the fragmentary nature of the surviving remnants. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? (location of worship of the god Hephaestus) was ascertained by the excavations and investigations that brought to light metallurgy workshops on the wider area of the hill, thus outshining earlier opinions presuming that Theseus, Hercules or Aris (Mars) were the deities worshipped there. It was dedicated to Hephaestus, the ancient god of fire and Athena, goddess of pottery and crafts. There are no formal records that tell us who designed and built this temple, but based on stylistic similarities with other buildings attributed to Iktinos, some historians are confident that he was the mastermind behind this Doric structure as well. Anyone can earn For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. Peter von Hess, "King Othon Received by the Greek Patriarch at the Theseum (Hephaesteion) on January 13th, 1835", 1835. According to the archeologists, the temple was built around 450 B.C. Tradition attributes the work to Alkamenes. courses that prepare you to earn | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} It was only during the Peace of Nicias (421-415 BC) that the roof was completed and the cult images were installed. The last Holy Mass took place in February 1833, when King Otto arrived in Greece. It was begun in 449 B.C., and was the first Athenian temple to be made of marble. In the 7th century CE, the temple was turned into a Christian church, dedicated to Saint George, and under this capacity it was used as a burial place for non-Orthodox Europeans in the 19th century, among whom were many philhellenes who gave their lives in the cause of Greek War of Independence (1821-1830). He is kind and peace loving. Visit the Ancient Greece Study Guide page to learn more. Some say that Hera, upset by having an ugly child, flung him from Mt. Select a subject to preview related courses: This was the Athens of Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Hippocrates, and Socrates. An inscription records payments between 421–415 BC for two bronze statues but it does not mention the sculptor. One states that it probably derives from the name of Akamantas, the son of Theseus and Pheadra, later transformed to Akamatos, and later still to Akamates. The lavish sculptural decoration of the temple featured highly interesting metopes that adorned the east and the west side of the external colonnade. Jones), Learn how and when to remove this template message, persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, "Some public monuments of Valletta 1800–1955 (1)", Remains of the Acharnian Road, Acharnian Gate and Cemetery Site, House of Saint Philothei/Benizelos-Palaiologos mansion, Cathedral Basilica of St. Dionysius the Areopagite, Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Temple_of_Hephaestus&oldid=963030843, 5th-century BC religious buildings and structures, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Articles needing additional references from March 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Wychbury Hill (1758) Pedmore, Stourbridge, West Midlands, "The Temple of Hephaestus" by Leo Masuda Architectonic Research Office, This page was last edited on 17 June 2020, at 11:32. The Temple of Hephaestus, Athens. From the 7th century until 1834, it served as the Greek Orthodox church of St. George Akamates (Ἀγιος Γεώργιος Ακαμάτης). It's one of the best surviving examples of Doric architecture in Greece, and that's pretty exciting. The Temple of Hephaestus (he-FEH-stus) is one such temple. According to the archeologists, the temple was built around 450 BCE. Enter your email address and password to log on. ... On the other side of the valley is the last spur of the hill, commanded by the remains of the Temple of Hephaestus (also called the Temple of Vulcan), although the exact deity to whom it is dedicated is unknown. 14. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. When Pericles came to power, he envisioned a grand plan for transforming Athens into the centre of Greek power and culture. An earlier interpretation identified the birth of Erichthonios in the east pediment and Heracles before Thetis in the west. The hotel serves a breakfast buffet, which includes hot selections. The frieze of the pronaos depicts a scene from the battle of Theseus with the Pallantides in the presence of gods while the frieze of the opisthodomos shows the battle of Centaurs and Lapiths.[1]. The entire building, from the crepis (stone base) to the roof, was made of marble produced in the quarries of Mt. at the western edge of the city, on top of Agoreos Koronos hill, and it is a classical example of Dorian architecture. There are assumptions however that this possibly occurred in the 7th century. In the seventh century AD, the temple was conversed into a church dedicated to St. George Akamas, and thus stayed in use until the liberation of Greece from the Turkish occupation. Doric friezes are decorated with alternating patterns of triglyphs and metopes. It was also the Athens of a man named Iktinos (sometimes spelled Ictinus). On the interior of the cella (in Greek sek?s) was a two-part colonnade forming the letter Π and at the far end was a pedestal, that supported the bronze ceremonial statues of Hephaestus and Athena, created by the sculptor Alkamenis; according to the traveller and geographer Pausanias, they were probably executed between 421 and 415 BC. On the eastern front of the temple, there are sculptures depicting the labors of Hercules and the battle of Thesseus with the Pallentides, the fifty children of Pallas. The decorative sculptures highlight the extent of mixture of the two styles in the construction of the temple. The east and west sides of the temple are shorter whereas the north and the south sides are longer. Athens was at the peak of its power and influence at this time, having defeated a Persian invasion and unified the other Greek city-states under its hegemony. Furthermore, on the north and the south side are depicted four of the feats of Theseus, which probably were the reason why the people named this temple "Thession".

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