Production Process : Styrene was initially produced by decarboxylation of cinnamic acid. [23] Exelus Inc. claims to have developed this process with commercially viable selectivities, at 400–425 °C and atmospheric pressure, by forcing these components through a proprietary zeolitic catalyst. Please upgrade your Internet Explorer to a newer version. Styrene is named after storax balsam, the resin of Liquidambar trees of the Altingiaceae plant family. [25], Another route to styrene involves the reaction of benzene and ethane. This process is being developed by Snamprogetti and Dow. It is a volatile, colourless liquid with a sweet odour Diethylene glycol. [40] In 2012, the Danish EPA concluded that the styrene data do not support a cancer concern for styrene. In 1845, French chemist Emil Kopp suggested that the two compounds were identical,[16] and in 1866, Erlenmeyer suggested that both "cinnamol" and styrene might be vinylbenzene. [44] Various regulatory bodies refer to styrene, in various contexts, as a possible or potential human carcinogen. As such, the two production processes are often highly integrated. [34][35] On 10 June 2011, the U.S. National Toxicology Program has described styrene as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". [33] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has described styrene to be "a suspected toxin to the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and respiratory system, among others". [8][9] He also noticed that when styrol was exposed to air, light, or heat, it gradually transformed into a hard, rubber-like substance, which he called "styrol oxide". This process has suffered from low selectivity associated with the competing decomposition of methanol. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, R. Fittig und F. Binder "Ueber die Additionsproducte der Zimmtssaure" in "Untersuchungen über die ungesättigten Säuren. [12] Furthermore, they could obtain styrene by dry-distilling "metastyrol". It is the monomer form of polystyrene. This process is known as POSM (Lyondell Chemical Company) or SM/PO (Shell) for styrene monomer / propylene oxide. Styrene oxide is subsequently hydrolyzed in vivo to styrene glycol by the enzyme epoxide hydrolase. [22] The polymerisation reaction is exothermic; hence, there is a real risk of thermal runaway and explosion. Styrene monomers are used to manufacture plastics, synthetic rubber, resins, insulator etc. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our websites. Since the molecules consist of thousands of atoms, the cumulative attractive force between the molecules is large. This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. [41] The U.S. EPA does not have a cancer classification for styrene,[42] but it has been the subject of their Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) program. [10] By 1845, the German chemist August Hofmann and his student John Blyth had determined styrene's empirical formula: C8H8. Use of the information without obtaining the permission from the owner(s) of the respective information might violate the rights of the owner. [54][55][56], On 7 May 2020, a gas, reported to be styrene, leaked from a tank at the LG Chem (LG Polymers India Private Limited) plant at RR Venkatapuram, Visakhapatnam, Andra Pradesh, India. Styrene (/ˈstʌɪriːn/)[5] is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH=CH2. EC number: 202-851-5 | CAS number: 100-42-5. Constituent 1. styrene . Used as a feedstock for unsaturated polyester resins. At 100 °C it will polymerise at a rate of ~2% per hour, and more rapidly than this at higher temperatures. [43] The National Toxicology Program of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has determined that styrene is "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen". Styrene monomers are used to manufacture plastics, synthetic rubber, resins, insulator etc. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. Styrene is regarded as a "known carcinogen", especially in case of eye contact, but also in case of skin contact, of ingestion and of inhalation, according to several sources. Styrene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2.This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid, although aged samples can appear yellowish.The compound evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. Its glass transition temperature is approximately 105 °C (221 °F). Approximately 25 million tonnes of styrene were produced in 2010,[6] increasing to around 35 million tonnes by 2018. Ethylbenzene is produced via a Friedel–Crafts reaction between benzene and ethylene; originally this used aluminum chloride as a catalyst, but in modern production this has been replaced by zeolites. [11] They had also determined that Simon's "styrol oxide" – which they renamed "metastyrol" – had the same empirical formula as styrene. Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. The molecular formula identifies each type of element by its chemical symbol and identifies the number of atoms of each element found in one discrete molecule of the substance. The dehydrogenation effluent is cooled and separated and the ethylene stream is recycled to the alkylation unit. Development of the process is ongoing. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid, although aged samples can appear yellowish. Used to manufacture interior automotive components. Welcome to the ECHA website. [20], Styrene can be produced from toluene and methanol, which are cheaper raw materials than those in the conventional process. The material's properties are determined by short-range van der Waals attractions between polymers chains. This is energy intensive and is further complicated by the tendency of styrene to undergo thermally induced polymerisation into polystyrene,[22] requiring the continuous addition of polymerization inhibitor to the system. [20][30][31][32] Styrene is largely metabolized into styrene oxide in humans, resulting from oxidation by cytochrome P450. Used as a raw material for polystyrene and EPS. [50][51][52][53] Studies on rats have yielded contradictory results,[51][52] but epidemiologic studies have observed a synergistic interaction with noise in causing hearing difficulties. Code: 2902.50 Chemical formula: H2C=C6H5CH Chemical Properties:  Melting point: -30-31 C Boling point: 145-146 C Specific gravity: 0.91 Solubility in water: < 1% Vapour density: 3.60. This site is not fully supported in Internet Explorer 7 (and earlier versions). Styrene can be also produced from toluene and methanol. Reference substance name: Styrene EC Number: 202-851-5 EC Name: Styrene CAS Number: 100-42-5 Molecular formula: C8H8 IUPAC Name: ethenylbenzene. Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. [39] Despite this claim, work has been done by Danish researchers to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to styrene and cancer. An example is the 2019 explosion of the tanker Stolt Groenland; in this incident 5,250 metric tons of styrene monomer detonated while the ship was docked in Ulsan, Republic of Korea. Thirteen people including a child reportedly died and over 200 people were hospitalized. In 1839, the German apothecary Eduard Simon isolated a volatile liquid from the resin (called storax or styrax (Latin)) of the American sweetgum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua). The vast majority of styrene is produced from ethylbenzene,[20] and almost all ethylbenzene produced worldwide is intended for styrene production. Lyondell Chemical Company uses an alternative process, a proprietary technology, to manufacture styrene monomer. Synonyms : Vinyl benzene; Stryrene; Cinnamenol; Cinnamol; Cinnamene; Cinnamenol; Ethenylbenzene; Phenethylene; Vinylbenzene; Vinylbenzol; Phenylethene; Styrolene; Styron; Styropol;  Styropor; A brief history : Styrene was first isolated from styrax, the resin from a Turkish tree. The presence of the vinyl group allows styrene to polymerize. It is reported[24] that an approximately 9:1 mixture of styrene and ethylbenzene is obtained, with a total styrene yield of over 60%. 100-42-5)", "EPA settles case against Phoenix company for toxic chemical reporting violations", "EPA Fines California Hot Tub Manufacturer for Toxic Chemical Release Reporting Violations", "Government Says 2 Common Materials Pose Risk of Cancer", Epidemiologic Studies of Styrene and Cancer: A Review of the Literature, "Exposure to styrene and chronic health effects: mortality and incidence of solid cancers in the Danish reinforced plastics industry", "Styrene entry in National Toxicology Program's Thirteenth Report on Carcinogens", "After 40 years in limbo: Styrene is probably carcinogenic", "Neurotoxic effects of styrene: further evidence", "Vizag Gas Leak Live News: Eleven dead, several hospitalised after toxic gas leak from LG Polymers plant", "Hundreds in hospital after leak at Indian chemical factory closed by lockdown", CDC – Styrene – NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic, Safety and Health Topics | Styrene (OSHA), Occupational Exposure to Chemicals and Hearing Impairment, Preventing Hearing Loss Caused by Chemical (Ototoxicity) and Noise Exposure Safety and Health Information Bulletin (SHIB),, Articles with dead external links from June 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, All articles with links needing disambiguation, Articles with links needing disambiguation from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, TWA 100 ppm C 200 ppm 600 ppm (5-minute maximum peak in any 3 hours), Note that Blyth and Hofmann state the empirical formula of styrene as C, This page was last edited on 28 October 2020, at 23:33. Particle size distribution (Granulometry), Solubility in organic solvents / fat solubility, Stability in organic solvents and identity of relevant degradation products, Storage stability and reactivity towards container material, Biodegradation in water and sediment: simulation tests, Additional information on environmental fate and behaviour, Short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates, Long-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates, Toxicity to aquatic algae and cyanobacteria, Toxicity to aquatic plants other than algae, Endocrine disrupter testing in aquatic vertebrates – in vivo, Toxicity to soil macroorganisms except arthropods, Endocrine disrupter mammalian screening – in vivo (level 3), Direct observations: clinical cases, poisoning incidents and other, Exposure related observations in humans: other data, styrene/100-42-5/RSC-ZIBO HUAXING ADDITIVES CO.,LTD, Styrene (CAS number 100-42-5; EC number 202-851-5), Registrants / Suppliers - Ceased manufacture, Registration numbers - Ceased manufacture, Registration numbers - Annulled but still legally valid, Additional physico-chemical properties of nanomaterials, Toxicokinetics, metabolism and distribution, Ashland Services BV, PO Box 8619, NL3009 AP, Rotterdam, Netherlands (the), -, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the), Oy Nizhex Scandinavia Ltd, 10, Wavulinintie, 00210, Helsinki, Finland, ARKEMA, 420 rue d'Estienne d'Orves, 92705, COLOMBES Cedex, France, Xerox Ltd, EC2, Bessemer Road, AL7 1BU, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the), No information, 420 rue d'Estienne d'Orves, 92705, COLOMBES Cedex, France, Koopman International B.V., Distelweg 88, 1031 HH, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Netherlands (the). Commercially significant products include polystyrene, ABS, styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber, styrene-butadiene latex, SIS (styrene-isoprene-styrene), S-EB-S (styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene), styrene-divinylbenzene (S-DVB), styrene-acrylonitrile resin (SAN), and unsaturated polyesters used in resins and thermosetting compounds. The process attempts to overcome previous shortcomings in earlier attempts to develop production of styrene from ethane and benzene, such as inefficient recovery of aromatics, production of high levels of heavies and tars, and inefficient separation of hydrogen and ethane.

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