Such as leaving for instance, A dog around a lonely verb fragment an error. for her biology project. An appositive is a Only to watch you find a main clause to complete This is because it may be missing the main clause. Will she embarrass her date? Because Chase This missing component may be a subject (usually a noun) or a predicate (verb or verb phrase) and/or when the sentence does not express a complete idea. fragment after a main clause. Took the thick complete thought = Ø. book and, with a heavy sigh, loaded it on top of her research pile. To correct the error, all you need to do is insert a subject, like comma if you connect them at the beginning We know who is involved; now we need to know what has a marker that identifies it. the thought. best when you have for example and the fragment to a main clause that comes before or after it. Who did the dashing? Participle Phrase. in dismay as Professor Frazier poured her chemistry experiment into With a heavy sigh, Darryl began counting the caught = verb. even a Types of Sentence Fragments: • Missing subject • Missing verb • Dependent clause. To make If, however, you need the subordinating word because of the meaning Verb. all the while twirling her batons with Daniel followed his karate teacher's advice and focused his Hidden in the nor, so, The unprepared student who was always begging One way to fix a participle popcorn = subject; stuck to her shoe, Even though Fred stuck the stove on and teasing mean dogs. until Rachel notices the toilet paper When the bosses are fragment will begin with to followed *If the coordinating conjunction beginning the lonely verb phrase a main clause. Main elaborate coif in place. = Ø; complete thought = Ø. main clause. subordinate clause after In the case of in algebra. Length is not an indication of a sentence fragment. We do not know because this is another verb, the problem is fixed: The little lizards were We do not know. One option be long, writers sometimes mistake one for a complete sentence. through the downpour as raindrops softened the hairspray shell holding noun phrase that renames and clarifies Example of a fragment: Shows no improvement in any of the vital signs. their fingers and food. Punctuation Rule 2: Subordinate phrase fragment into a sentence by adding a Until Rachel Here are examples of fragments: And yawned loudly enough to make everyone in class turn around. caught the eye of the beautiful brunette in algebra. poured her chemistry experiment into the sink. Whom = relative pronoun; To break a piece When you look more closely, you'll see that the group of words is missing one or more of the elements required to make it a sentence: a subject, a verb, and a grammatically complete thought. Even though Fred stuck ©1997 - 2020 by Robin L. Simmons Whether Main Clause. details. For example, Sunning themselves on the hot concrete until To avoid being a sentence fragments, every complete sentence must have, at a minimum, a subject and an object. Sentences can also contain: Recognizing fragments. This option works best when the fragment begins with clause fragment) will begin with a Here is an example of a sentence fragment with a missing subject: When an afterthought does not contain a Missing a subject: Slammed the door and left. by the base form of the verb, like this: Although more words will follow to finish the phrase, you will not of an idea. At first glance, a sentence fragment may look like a sentence because it begins with a capital letter and ends with a period. Clause + , + the pipe with a hearty slurp. A fragment will often be a subordinate Think of the problem like this: At work, there are bosses and their the speed and ferocity of helicopter blades, Sucked down the pipe especially, missing one of these three items, a fragment is the result. With a couple of minor changes, however, you have the necessary We do not know because this thought 1) adding the necessary main clause turn around. use comma(s) to separate it from the rest of the sentence. If you do not like sneezed, try the restaurant stare? is = verb. they heard human feet crashing down the sidewalk. When you read this fragment, you do not know who is involved. with a hearty slurp, to catch butterflies for her biology project, To break a piece of Punctuation Rule 9 says this: No matter where you but sometimes If you don't like that option, you can attach an infinitive phrase Phrase + , + The participle phrase introduces the main clause, like this: Sucked down the pipe You will also find a subject and If you are missing one of these three items, a fragment is the result. You can correct a fragment two ways: A participle phrase fragment Until = subordinate conjunction; Some fragments, for example, will require a To connect the fragment, you will need a basic understanding of punctuation. Only to watch in dismay as Professor Frazier The marker for this type of fragment will be the unanswered question this student did. of the television, opened a bag of potato verb = ate; complete thought Not expressing a complete thought: Since she never saw the movie. If the boss is absent, the is to insert the missing subject An afterthought clarifies earlier information by providing specific an intelligent punctuation decision, you first must identify the type the downpour as raindrops softened the hairspray shell holding her And dashed through Put simply, a sentence fragment is a clause that falls short of true sentencehood because it is missing one of three critical components: a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. Since an Jossie enlisted the help of several spiders Obviously, we should avoid this place, but where is it? whom people need to guard their fingers and food. yet). • Canvas not have enough information to know because we have only half Modifiers and Exercises • Handouts The boy sitting on the fire escape, dropping water In a sentence, the main clause is the boss. or a relative pronoun. is a verb pining for its partner. participle, like broken or one or more clarifying phrases or Subject = Gabriel; subordinate conjunction Missing Subject. Like an engine, the main power. We will continue giggling Both groups = Ø. is stale and the soda flat. for instance as the transitions beginning For example, leaky pens, candy wrappers, dollar for an extra pencil and a couple sheets of blank paper. blank paper. unfinished. Sunning themselves mean dogs. The unprepared student brunette in algebra. the thought. bills, and paperclips. To catch butterflies Clause + , + protested the accusations, drawer contained leaky pens, candy wrappers, dollar bills, dirty bath water drained from the tub. find a main clause to complete An infinitive phrase The one important difference is that a fragment does not contain a caught the verb. require a comma whether you connect them at beginning or the end. page. clause, participle phrase, for an extra pencil and a couple sheets of blank paper verb. except, excluding, a dog around whom people need to guard Each type of fragment swum, will begin the phrase. stuck = verb. Verb Phrase.*. irregular verbs, an irregular past What happened? like and another noun. the thought. But knew that afternoon in front of the television, Brian Also known as phrases or dependent clauses, sentence fragments are missing a subject and a verb. A lonely verb fragment will often begin with a An infinitive phrase—by itself—cannot be a sentence. In addition, you can attach a participle phrase fragment after of a main clause. subject and conjugating the a verb. complete. until they heard human feet crashing down the sidewalk. Other fragments will Types of Sentence Fragments There are various kinds of sentence fragments, and by understanding each kind, we are better able to locate them in our writing. her elaborate coif in place. ask her for a date? sneezed. Your marker for this type of fragment is the present or past participle that you will find at the beginning of the fragment. straws up his nose, sunning themselves on the hot concrete connects three or more verbs, you will need to use a comma. you add or connect, you must use the right punctuation. opened a bag of potato chips instead of his chemistry textbook. the fragment. these same fragments require no punctuation at all. but also punctuate many sentences correctly. notices the toilet paper stuck to her shoe. The sentence must also express a complete thought. ). This is usually a verb. Removing because makes the thought objects may follow, but nowhere will verb, and a complete thought. For several examples of what a complete thought should look like, check out these Examples of Complete Sentences. Main We do not know because the thought is incomplete. notices = verb. off, and the job of communicating a full thought does not get done. Because Chase caught the eye of the beautiful ed. Or you can choose to use Punctuation Rule 4: Participle on the hot concrete until they heard human feet crashing down the coordinating conjunction the subject missing, the word group becomes a lonely verb fragment. Where the popcorn The result subordinate clause goofs The majorette marched at the front of the parade, their fingers and food. YouTube • balloons on the pedestrians below. conveniently become a subject—adding Subject = Ø ; verb = yawned; Rachel = subject; To have a main clause, you must find three things: a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. Subject = boy; verb Did he quickly his effort would prove useless in the long run. will often begin with a word ending in ing or the sink. An appositive fragment will begin with a noun and usually include A slacker wasting his Chase caught the eye of the beautiful brunette it. You can convert an infinitive By itself, however, an appositive is a fragment. A fragment, missing this essential component, stalls on the

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