Of greatest importance in his view are the molecular processes and concepts that are operating with a given catalyst regardless of the name it is given. Eric Stangland from The Dow Chemical Company remarked that just as catalysts and processes are intimately linked, so too are the separations processes. Others have used spark discharge (Kado et al., 2003) or corona discharge (Marafee et al., 1997) to convert methane into ethylene, though with substantial power input. There are a number of thermodynamically feasible fuel cells for chemicals and energy cogeneration, said Pez. There is a desire, she said, to exploit new processes for butadiene production, and she suggested two potential routes: ethylene dimerization followed by oxidative dehydrogenation and a one-step oxidation of butane to butadiene. A methane to ethane and ethylene fuel cell has also been reported (Kiatkittipong et al., 2004; Quddus et al., 2010) using a lanthanum-aluminum anode and a lanthanum-strontium-manganese cathode. This was particularly noted for the formation of selective nitrogen-based oxidants and processes. He noted that when engaging in process development, it does help to know what is happening locally at the catalyst. Stahl noted that increasing 1-hexene use in LLDPE is expected to drive market growth (see Figure 4-9). While this selectivity may not play a critical role in the production of many commodity chemicals, Stahl noted it is capitalized on throughout organic chemistry and in particular in pharmaceutical synthesis. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Bricker agreed with this comment, adding that each catalyst–process combination produces a different mix of byproducts that have to be separated. & B.P. As a result, nickel is the catalyst used in practice. As far as specifics, the working group voiced interest in these electrochemical processes but the concern was that these technologies may not be viable at an industrial scale because of the difficulty in scaling the electrocatalytic systems and operating them at scale. In the 1960s, Shell developed a dehydrogenation process using molten iodine salts (Sanborn et al., 1968), and more recently, researchers have demonstrated the production of light olefins from methane and ethane using chlorine as the oxidant (Shalygin et al., 2013). Vary the metals, zeolites, and location of the active sites for the two reactions within the zeolites. Group rapporteur James Stevens, recently retired as the Dow Distinguished Fellow at The Dow Chemical Company, began the discussion with the comment that over the years he had seen numerous examples of methane activation with nontraditional oxidants involving the conversion of methane to methyl-X, where X is a leaving group, and that if he were to poll the workshop participants, each one could probably identify one leaving group that someone in industry or academia had tried and. Johannes Lercher from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, acting as this group’s rapporteur, said the three major impediments to commercial viability of processes to convert light alkanes to aromatics are. latter of which can be converted to in-demand butadiene using other technology.

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