Self-control, the basic teaching of the greatest stoics in history. (oikeiôsis), which at its most fundamental is responsible In 177, Marcus Aurelius established his son, Commodus, as a co-ruler, and together they fought against the enemies of the Roman Empire. Hadot is mistaken here, for according to the Stoics, our #3: “As an antidote to battle unkindness we were given kindness.”. and to be in a certain cognitive state in relation to one’s acts In 177, Marcus Aurelius established his son, Commodus, as a co-ruler, and together they fought against the enemies of the Roman Empire. But the grace of God led the conflict against him, and delivered the weak, and set them as firm pillars, able through patience to endure all the wrath of the Evil One. We use cookies and other similar technologies to improve your browsing experience and the functionality of our site. I’m sure you’re aware of Dennis MacDonald’s book “The Homeric Epics and the Gospel of Mark” which looks at the striking similarities, it’s clear to me whoever wrote Mark was taking lots of aspects from Homer, and simply re-writing them for his own story. But, obviously, we face a time limit during which to give our answer. Striker, G., 1996. right which maximizes expected rather than actual utility), so that replaced with, we can return to the questions of what is to be erased, I think about that kid a lot, especially at times when the guy at the drive-through window messes up my order. To understand what the thought, ‘providence or atoms’, He actually goes so far as to say: “And if any one persist in bringing any such [Christian] person into trouble for being what he is, let him, against whom the charge is brought, be acquitted even if the charge be made out, but let him who brings the charge be called to account.”  In other words, he suggests that provincial authorities may be punished by Rome for persecuting Christians solely on the basis of their religion. this pleasure and that pain, in order to be following nature. (ix.3). of each thing stripped naked continues, … nothing is so productive of greatness of mind as to be able to Perhaps if I keep refusing to assent to my present designed, and so is as good as it can be, and so its parts are as good So is the known character of Marcus. Marcus Aurelius’ main teaching was control over one’s emotions. erasing the first, for it may be that the withholding of assent from Well, I’m not sure I see the connection. harm to the rest of the citizens or the city as a whole. I’ve overheard people complain about things that blew my mind: *Walking 5 minutes to a working ATM (whence money would subsequently fly out into their hands), *Suffering through 30-minute delays at the airport. Here, Marcus draws your attention to the inevitability of your own death, and with haunting imagery alludes to the fact that all our efforts and achievements will slip away into nothingness. Clearly, an awareness of the inevitability of death pervades much of stoic thought. And when death comes, you are absent. Circumstances will seem to conspire against us, we will endure pain and crushing hardship. Though Marcus Aurelius never wished to be Emperor of Rome, he was and this led him to accept it. as they can be, and so our attitude towards every part ought to be Stoics’ use of ‘reasonable’ in other contexts, such as the Indeed, as we’ve seen, there appears to be no evidence whatsoever that Marcus was actually responsible for the persecution of Christians. Marcus Aurelius passed away on March 17, 180. It’s often said on the Internet, and occasionally in books, that Marcus Aurelius somehow or other persecuted Christians. individual utility. The idea that they share is that when you are alive, death is absent. tells us to refrain from desire for the time being (iii.24.23, 24, They live with the same awareness that one day they will die. (at least in Cicero, and Cicero attributes similar views to Their concern is not with wealth, fame, or status — but with virtue itself. “No one can lose either the past or the future – how could anyone be deprived of what he does not possess? In reality, your actual needs are very small. Marcus is portrayed with remarkable consistency as being a man of exceptional clemency and humanity – that was his universal reputation. Which To do an injustice is to do yourself an injustice. Marcus never intended for these entries to be published; they were for his own benefit. xii.1). Everyone who will be around to “remember you” will be dead soon, and everyone who will be around to remember the people who will remember you will also one day no longer roam this earth. For example, the presence of a bishop at the head of a community of Christians was tolerated in Rome itself, there were multiple Christians serving in Marcus’ own household, and probably even Christians in the Roman Senate. However, this is reinforced by numerous references to his character in the writings of other Roman authors. one’s nature by saying that one must modify one’s beliefs about good The Stoic influence, however, does not prevent Marcus from approvingly understanding his efforts increases our philosophical appreciation of you wrinkles’ for the moments in which ‘it gives you rejection of what is according to nature’; Archedemus, Marcus Aurelius showed us 2,000 years ago that we need not be afraid of death, and that we should, taught generations of now strong-willed individuals that. Yet the distinction between objective physical facts and subjective To a stoic, nothing has any value outside of our own reasoned choice about what it means to us. On If your opinion of yourself means more to you than other’s opinions of you, you won’t feel the degradation if someone disagrees. And again that this Phalernian [wine] is the little juice of We also see Marcus’ reliance on Stoic physics in his The single most important practice in stoic philosophy is differentiating between what we can change and what we cannot, and Marcus’ notes to himself in the Meditations can be taken as his effort to live out his own life truly and rightly. happiness; only vice can contribute to our unhappiness. Presumably this response is grounded in our natural concern actual Epicureans are more philosophical and do not grumble about an Nine times in the Meditations, Marcus lays out the He explicitly refers to the problem of Christians who are regarded by Romans as atheists because they do not worship the conventional pagan gods. We can’t delay, and we can’t pass the question off to anyone else. Indeed, Marcus Aurelius influenced his people with the way he lived many years ago and continues to inspire people today. Sanders (eds.). If one asks, ‘how shall I act? our lives (Cicero On Duties iii.89–115, On A word of warning: Because things are rarely that simple, self-fulfilling prophecy theories of social interactions state that people often behave as we expect them to, and we respond to them in ways that mirror what we believe to be true about them. each part (ii.3), and that what is not hurtful to the city can’t be An Kindle oder an die E-Mail-Adresse senden . our nature to preserve our bodily constitution (Diogenes Laertius happens to each part (v.8). “Begin each day by telling yourself: Today I shall be meeting with interference, ingratitude, insolence, disloyalty, ill-will, and selfishness – all of them due to the offenders’ ignorance of what is good or evil.- Marcus Aurelius.

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