Pelekophoros (GR): axe-man. Hipparchia (GR): cavalry regiment. Syzeuxis (GR): parallel formation. All Greek words have been transcribed in the Latin alphabet. Xyelè (GR): curved dagger; sickle. Krypteia (GR): secret service; Spartan death squad for keeping the helots in check. Among other measures, for the first time the Hellenic Army was briefly subdivided into divisions and brigades. Citizens discharged from active service are normally placed in the Reserve and are subject to periodic recall of 1–10 days at irregular intervals. This page was last edited on 8 November 2020, at 22:59. For the military systems in Ancient Greece, see, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, History of the Peloponnesian War (2.43.4), Supreme Military Command of the Interior and Islands, List of historical equipment of the Hellenic Army, https://eda.europa.eu/info-hub/defence-data-portal/Greece/year/2015#2, Υπουργείο Εθνικής 'Αμυνας (2004) – Ένοπλες Δυνάμεις. Thalamax (GR): rower on lowest rowing level of a galley; alternative term for thalamios (GR). Schèma (GR): disposition; formation. Hekatontarchia (GR): unit of hundred; military unit; company. Xenagia (GR): 'foreign legion'; military unit. Petrobolos (GR): stonethrower; torsion gun. Metoopon (GR): front of a battle-line. Cavalry trooper and officer of 1832, outfitted like Bavarian uhlans with czapki hats, in contrast to the shakos of other branches, Artillerymen during the early years of King Otto: (left to right) soldier, bombardier, and artillery officer, Preserved BL 6-inch 30 cwt howitzer of the Greek artillery, War Museum of Thessaloniki, Army officers that took part in the Macedonian Struggle (c.1909), Preserved flag of the Greek III Division of the Macedonian front in the National Historical Museum, Athens, Greek troops with Allies during the occupation of Constantinople, Military formation in the World War I Victory Parade in Arc de Triomphe, Paris. Poliorketès (GR): besieger. Telos (GR): military unit. Tagma (GR): military unit. Akontistès (GR): javelineer. Akropolis (GR): citadel; fortified part of a city. Triakas (GR): military unit. Misthos (GR): pay. This glossary offers an explanation of Greek (GR) and a few Persian (PE) terms and expressions associated with ancient Greek warfare. Polemios (GR): enemy. Styrax (GR): butt-spike. During peacetime, the Army has the following main objectives: Alexander Ypsilantis (in Sacred Band uniform) crosses the Pruth, starting the Greek War of Independence. Kybernètès (GR): helmsman. Kontophoros (GR): spearman. Strateuma (GR): military campaign. In the phalanx, the army worked as a unit in a … Syskènios (GR): tent partner; Spartan member of military mess association. Belos (GR): missile. Machaira (GR): sword. Sphendonetès (GR): slinger. Systasis (GR): light infantry platoon. Asthetairos (GR): city companion; title borne by Macedonian infantryman, possibly an alternative name for the pezhetairoi (GR) from the northern districts of the kingdom. Peltastès (GR): shieldbearing javelineer. Most professional officers graduate from the Evelpidon Military Academy in Athens (Στρατιωτική Σχολή Ευελπίδων) and the Corps Officers Military Academy in Thessaloniki (Στρατιωτική Σχολή Αξιωματικών Σωμάτων), while the rest graduate from various Military Schools according to their specialization. Chiliarchès (GR): commander of thousand; officer. Dathapatish (PE): 'commander of ten'; squad leader. Prodomata (GR): pay in advance. Thoorakitès (GR): soldier wearing body armour. Kakos (GR): coward. Polis (GR): city state. Spara (PE): shield. Hoplomachos (GR): weapons or drill instructor. The first of these, an infantry regiment and a small artillery battery, were established in April 1822, and were commanded by European Philhellenes (such as Joseph Balestra and others). The Hellenic Army Emblem is the two-headed eagle with a Greek Cross escutcheon in the centre. The Army of Alexander the Great Homoios (GR): peer; Spartan enjoying full citizenship. The latter officers are followed in seniority by volunteer and finally conscript staff.  Reform was accelerated after the Goudi coup of 1909. Dory (GR): spear. Anax (GR): king. Most support branches are called "Corps" (Σώμα), with some exceptions. Zygon (GR): rank. Phygè (GR): flight. Distinct meanings of the same word are indicated by numbers between brackets. Trièraulès (GR): flute player governing strike rate of oarsmen. Dilochia (GR): double-file. Stratopedeusis (GR): naval formation. Kataskopos (GR): scout. Tetrarchia (GR): unit of four files. After the war, Greece incorporated Dodecanese. It was first awarded to King Constantine I for his leadership in the Balkan Wars. Amphippos (GR): cavalryman with two mounts. Armies of Ancient Greece . Stratègion (LA): commander's tent. Hyperèsia (GR): 'auxiliary group'; naval crew in addition to the rowers and captain such as marines and deck hands. Pezon (GR): infantry. Politès (GR): citizen; man enjoying citizenship. Koinon (GR): association; unit. Hieros lochos (GR): Sacred band; Theban elite formation composed of 150 couples of male lovers. Exeligmos (GR): counter-march. Mitrè (GR): abdominal armour. Leo Niehorster's website shows the higher organisation of the Greek Army on 15 August 1940, with the General Staff of the Army directly supervising five corps, three divisions, and the Thessaloniki Fortress.. Pèdalia (GR): pair of rudders. The structure of Hellenic Army ranks has its roots in British military traditions and follows NATO standard rank scale. Please note that some of the Persian terminology is derived from educated guesswork rather than hard evidence. Taxis (GR): (1) battle order; (2) military unit; regiment. The country joined WWII with the Allies side in October 1940, when dictator Ioannis Metaxas rejected an Italian ultimatum by Mussolini. Enoomotia (GR): sworn band; military unit. Grosphos (GR): javelin. The governorship of Ioannis Kapodistrias (1828–1831) saw a drastic reorganization of the national military: a Secretariat on Army and Naval Affairs and the Hellenic Army Academy were created, the Army engineering corps was founded (28 July 1829), and a concerted effort was made to reform the various irregular forces into regular light infantry battalions. The only regular officer to have been awarded the rank was General Alexander Papagos on 28 October 1949.
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